Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2002; 43:615-622. Article Search Geographic Area AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegowinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, the Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatia Data points represent a 1-D interval (for example, those associated with +1 on the x-axis represent more than +0.50 D to +1.50 D or less). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2002, Vol.43, 615-622. http://supercgis.com/refractive-error/refractive-error-in-school-children-in-india.html
The epidemiology of myopia. Refractive error included a case each of high myopia and hyperopia. Ophthalmology 112: 678–685. This unmet need for spectacles among school-aged children replicates that reported in other RESC studies, including that in New Delhi. 6 7 8 9 The prevalence of baseline visual acuity http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867575
Of the four districts included in APEDS, all blind children were residing in the two poor rural districts. The Refractive Error Study in Children was supported by the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland under National Institutes of Health Contract N01-EY-2103. Refraction was performed in children after cycloplegic refraction, regardless of their visual acuity, using streak retinoscopy. Pubmed Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:427–435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]7Pokharel GP, Negrel AD, Munoz SR, Ellwein LB.
The familial component of clustering should be of no consequence in estimates dealing with 1-year age intervals, because a family is unlikely to have more than one child at the same Prevalence Of Refractive Errors In Indian Children Measurement pairs were within 0.5 D for both retinoscopy and autorefraction 95% of the time, with insignificant mean differences. Lancet. 1986;1(8476)307–310. [PubMed]13The Framingham Offspring Eye Study Group. browse this site Myopia risk was associated with female gender and having a father with a higher level of schooling.
Extrapolation of these data suggest that of the approximately 400 million children in India,11 680 000 (95% CI 360 000 to 1 200 000) may be blind, including 226 440 with Accordingly, 1.8% of all children examined had improved baseline visual acuity to 20/32 or better in at least one eye with prescription glasses. Web Search Results: Similar Publications Mar2002 Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002 Mar;43(3):623-31G V S Murthy, Sanjeev K Gupta, Leon B Ellwein, Muñoz, Gopal P.
The two data points at the extreme ends represent −4.50 D or worse and greater than +4.50 D.View OriginalDownload Slide Table 1. View Table Distribution of Enumerated and Examined Children by Age and Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, and International Agency for Prevention of Blindness. Prevalence Of Refractive Error In India Vinay Nangia and Dr. Prevalence Of Refractive Error In The World Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; the Sergio R.
Ophthalmology 116: 2128–2134. http://supercgis.com/refractive-error/refractive-error-prevalence-india.html Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness. The number of enumerated children per cluster ranged from 115 to 340. Of these 4414 children, 4074 were examined—a participation rate of 92.3%. To assess the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school-aged children in the rural population of the Mahabubnagar district in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Prevalence Of Refractive Error In Children
Eight additional children appeared at the examination site, but because neither visual acuity nor cycloplegic dilation and refractive measurement were possible, they were not included among the examined cohort. Overall, 31 children had hyperopia, a prevalence of 0.78% (95% CI, 0.49%–1.07%; deff = 0.983), and 163 children had myopia, representing a prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI, 3.3%–4.9%; deff = 1.562). The prevalence of uncorrected, baseline (presenting), and best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 2.7%, 2.6%, and 0.78%, respectively. have a peek here Figure 1. Mean right-eye spherical equivalent refractive error by age in boys (top) and girls (bottom).
Ophthalmol. Five- and 6-year-olds were included in the pilot survey, in which it was realized that children at these ages were finding it very difficult to comprehend the visual acuity test—particularly, those APEDS was conducted from October 1996 to February 2000.
Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals (CI) and odds ratios (OR) were presented. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:908–916. [PubMed] Figure 1. This potential weakness in the study design may, however, not have affected the assessment of visual acuity and the rate of visual impairment or blindness as defined by the WHO. Refractive error blindness.
Children who could not keep the scheduled date were given another date within the same week or were offered an examination near the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using a commercially available statistical software package (spss for Windows, version 17.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Br J Ophthalmol. Check This Out Retinal disorders (including retinitis pigmentosa, coloboma, macular scar, and heredomacular degeneration) and corneal opacity and scars were the other significant causes of visual impairment. Discussion RESC was a population-based cross-sectional survey
Cluster design effects ranging from 1.008 to 1.287 are not reflected in the confidence intervals for the four exact binomial estimates. Light reflex and pupil dilation were evaluated after an additional 15 minutes. Using the US definition, 213 (1.8±0.1%; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.1) children had visual impairment and 8 (0.07±0.02%; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.1) children were blind. Myopia risk was associated with female gender and having a father with a higher level of schooling.
New visual acuity charts for clinical research. Human subject research approval for the study protocol was obtained from the World Health Organization secretariat committee on research involving human subjects. The data on childhood blindness were obtained as part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) and the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC).6–8 The methodology of these two studies In another 24 eyes of 16 children, the criteria were not met, but the examining ophthalmologist concluded that amblyopia was the most likely cause of vision impairment.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:2810–2818. [PubMed]3Kalikivayi V, Naduvilath TJ, Bansal AK, Dandona L.